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Wednesday, April 29, 2009

Sweden's 'Loch Ness Monster'

Perhaps, no other creature ever captured the world's heart quite like the legendary Loch Ness Monster. For every sighting revealed to be a hoax, credible new evidence emerges.

The monster's legend dates back some 1500 years, but "Nessie's" star really began to ascend in the 1930s.

Home in the Highlands

Located in the Scottish Highlands, the famous Loch Ness just seems to lend itself to mystery. It's easy to see why any creature could elude discovery in the loch for centuries. While we may never know what the Loch Ness monster is (if it does, in fact, even exist), here are some details about the Scottish Highlands in which it reportedly lives:
Almost 22 square miles on its surface, Loch Ness boasts the largest volume of freshwater in Scotland.

It contains the greatest average depth of any Scotland loch, plunging as low as 754 feet.

The loch's high peat concentration provides Loch Ness with its legendary murkiness.

The Loch Ness contains more water than all of the lakes in England and Scotland combined.

The Loch Ness Monster's Physical Features
Most of us have at least a hazy notion of Nessie's legendary looks. The sightings are split between two iconic images: A serpent-like creature with several humps or a creature usually described as "a long necked plesiosaur." Here is a look at some of the attributes commonly attributed to the Loch Ness Monster:
  • Body: Statistically, almost half of the sightings describe a creature with a small head, long neck and two or three humps in its back.

  • Color: At least one recent witness reported the Loch Ness Monster to be "jet black" in color.

  • Other features: A 1970s image purports to reveal that the Loch Ness Monster has rhomboid-shaped fins.

  • Size: The monster is believed to be 25 to 40 feet in length and perhaps four feet high.

From Kelpie to "Nessie"

References to mysterious encounters in the Loch Ness area go back as far as 560 AD. According to a biographer, the missionary St. Columba encountered a fierce water creature while traveling the River Ness. Just after the beast attacked and killed a native, it turned on one of the missionary's own men.
Here is an excerpt of the account: "[T]he monster . . . suddenly rushed out, and, giving an awful roar, darted after him, with its mouth wide open." According to legend, the future saint frightened the monster away by making the sign of the cross in the air.
Other tales emerged over the ensuing centuries, including that of a nineteenth century warlock said to possess a bridle belonging to a "water kelpie" that roamed Loch Ness. Some say kelpies were invented by parents anxious to keep children away from Britain's many deep lakes and rivers. Others claim that real events prompted the urgent warnings.

1933: A Good Year for Nessie Sightings

The year 1933 vividly brought the Loch Ness Monster legend to public attention. About 43 sightings occurred in that year alone. One couple out for a drive even claims to have seen the Loch Ness monster walking across a local road with some sort of animal in its mouth!
Many attribute the surge of Nessie sightings to highway improvements along the Loch's North Shore. It's unclear which was more instrumental in increasing monster sightings: The improved view, increased tourism or Nessie becoming perturbed by all the shoreline explosions. No matter what the reason, skeptics and believers alike were asking the same question: "The Loch Ness monster: What is it?"
Several photos of Nessie exist, the most famous of which was taken in 1934 by surgeon Kenneth Wilson. The photograph reveals a creature with a long neck and upraised head. Unfortunately, Wilson's photograph was exposed as a hoax more than 50 years later.

Sonar and the Loch Ness Monster

In 1954, a Loch Ness fishing boat equipped with sonar recorded a large object traveling at about the boat's speed at a depth of almost 500 feet.
The late 1960s ushered in the modern era of sonar and related projects to Loch Ness, several of which yielded intriguing results. Among them were sonar readings that evidenced an object about twenty feet long, moving too swiftly to be a fish.
In 1970, underwater microphones picked up a series of chirpings and swishing noises scientists could not identify as any known natural phenomenon. The recordings seemed to suggest a large animal using echolocation to find prey, with the swishing indicating tail movement characteristic of large aquatic animals on the hunt.
As recently as May 2007, a video emerged that purported to show a swiftly-moving, jet-black creature about 45 feet long. The video, broadcast on BBC Scotland, is still being analyzed.

Plesiosaur Possibility

From the beginning, Nessie-lovers who believed that the creature has a long, graceful neck indicated the Loch Ness monster was an aquatic dinosaur known as the plesiosaur, which somehow escaped the fate of its fellow dinosaurs during the mass extinction 65 million years ago.
Unfortunately, basic laws of nature seem to throw cold water on the Plesiosaur theory:
  • The area known as the "Loch Ness" has been determined to be only about 10,000 years old, created by the last Ice Age. That makes it impossible for plesiosaurs to have been hiding in the loch for millions of years.

  • Plesiosaur experts insist the creatures didn't lift their necks "swan-like" from the water, as Nessie-spotters so often report about the Loch Ness creature.

  • Scientists believe the Plesiosaur to have been a cold-blooded creature preferring warm, tropical waters. Loch Ness, therefore, would be too cold for such a creature. Most believe Nessie to be warm-blooded.

The Loch Ness Monster: What is It

To this day, the Loch Ness monster phenomenon remains neither proven nor discredited. Skeptics continue to point to the fact that no physical evidence, such as skeletal remains or tissue samples, has ever been recovered.
However, true believers insist that the sheer number of sightings, the majority of which have not been ruled to be hoaxes, prove that the Loch Ness has yet to yield all of its secrets.

Events On This Day In History...

Today In HistoryHere is what happened on Thursday - April 30th...
It is the 120 day of the year, and there are 245 days left...

Famous People Born On This Day In History...

Events On This Day In History...
1689, The Bhangani Battle was fought between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and the Hill Rajas. This was Guru Sahib's first battle. Pir Budhu Shah's sons and 700 of his followers fought along side Guru's forces
1837, The Battle of Jamrodh was fought and this is where Hari Singh Nalwa accepted Shahadat.
1877, A mysterious aroma circumambulated the Guru Granth Sahib in the Golden Temple.
1921, SGPC registered with British Government as a Sikh body in Lahore.
1789, George Washington inaugurated as first president of the U.S.
1798, Department of the Navy established.
1877, An aroma like blazing light circumambulated Guru Granth Sahib in Golden Temple and vanished instantly.
1803, US more than doubles its size thru the Louisiana Purchase.
1808, The first practical typewriter was finished by Italian Pellegrini Turri. He built it for a blind friend.
1857, Founding of what would become San Jose State University.
1869, The Hawaiian YMCA organized.
1939, NBC makes first US demo of TV at opening of NY World's Fair.

And Don't Forget...
Hair Dresser's Day.
National Honesty Day.

Click to go back to the services section of History of the Sikhs

Birthdates and Deaths which occurred on your SELECTED date of April 30:

1309 Kazimierz III de Great King of Poland (1333-70)
1602 William Lilly England, astrologer/author/almanac compiler
1651 Jean-Baptiste de la Salle French priest/theorist/saint
1717 Guillaume Gommaire Kennis composer
1743 Robert Jasper van de Capellen master of Marsch/politician
1767 Jean Henri Appelius lawyer/minister of Finance
1770 David Thompson English/Canadian explorer (Columbia River)
1777 Carl Friedrich Gauss Brunswick Germany, one of the world's great mathematicians (number theory, non-Euclidean geometry, gravitation)
1790 John Cockerill English/Belgian industrialist
1792 Johann Friedrich Schwencke composer
1796 Isaäc M "Isaac A" Crémieux French lawyer/minister of Justice
1797 Andreas V Michiels Dutch military governor of West-Sumatra
1805 William Kerley Strong Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1867
1812 Kaspar Hauser German son of grand duke Karel van Bathe
1823 George JD Campbell Scottish/British Minister to Indies (1868-74/80-85)
1830 Davis Tillson Brevet Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1895
1837 Alfred Gaul composer
1846 Rosalie Amstein writer
1851 Indrið Einarsson Iceland playwright (Nyjársnóttin)
1853 Alfred von Berger writer
1858 Mary Scott Lord Dimmick Harrison 1st lady (1889-1893)
1864 Frans Netscher Dutch writer/journalist (Studies of nude model)
1870 Franz Lehar operetta composer (Naughty Marietta)
1874 Cyriel Verschaeve Belgian priest/writer
1882 Trijntje "Nine" van de Schaaf author (To the Invisible)
1883 David John de Lloyd composer
1884 Albert Israel Elkus composer
1885 Luigi Russolo composer
1886 Frank Merrik composer
1888 John Crowe Ransom American poet/critic (God Without Thunder)
1889 Acario Cotapos composer
1889 Rudolph Hermann Simonsen composer
1891 Watze Cuperus Frisian author (Swart mar leaflik)
1893 Joachim von Ribbentrop German SS führer/foreign minister
1896 Reverend Gary Davis Laurens SC, blues/folk guitarist (A Little More Faith)
1899 Jannetje Fisherman-Roosendaal author (regional novels)
1899 Lucie Mannheim Berlin, actress (East Meets West, 39 Steps)
19-- Thom Bray Camden NJ, actor (Cyril-Breaking Away)
1902 Andre-François Marescotti composer
1902 Rudolf Wittelsbach composer
1903 Günther Raphael German composer (Symphony Breve)
1905 Henrich Schläppi Switzerland, 4 man bobsled (Olympics-gold-1924)
1909 Queen Juliana of Netherlands (1948-80)
1910 Al Lewis actor (Leo-Car 54, Grandpa-Munsters)
1911 Hans Studer composer
1911 John-Baptist J Walgrave [Henricus/Humanus], Flemish, theologist
1911 Luise Rinser writer
1912 Eve Arden Mill Valley CA, actress (Connie-Our Miss Brooks)
1912 Manuel Gutierrez Mellado soldier/politician
1913 Bernard Charles Sendall deputy director general (ITA)
1913 Edith Fowke folklorist
1914 Sid Weiss bassist
1915 Johnny Galecki actor (Danny-American Dreamer)
1916 Robert Shaw Red Bluff CA, chorale conductor (Robert Shaw Chorale)
1916 Claude Shannon information theorist
1916 Dugo D Schenker Suriname/Antillian producer
1917 Bea Wain US singer/radio host (Lucky Strike Hit Parade)
1918 W Donald McNeill tennis champion (US Open-1940)
1919 Valeer [Valerius V] van Kerkhove Flemish writer/producer
1920 Duncan Hamilton driver
1920 Leen 't Hart Dutch organist/composer
1922 Anton Murray cricketer (South African batsman in 10 Tests 1951-55)
1923 Al Lewis actor (Grandpa-The Munsters)
1923 Alan Wharton cricketer (England batsman once vs New Zealand 1949, scored 7 & 13)
1923 George Byatt playwright
1924 Sheldon Harnick Chicago IL, Broadway lyricist (Fiorello, Fiddler on the Roof)
1925 Corinne Calvet Paris France, actress (Phantom of Hollywood)
1926 Cloris Leachman Des Moines IA, actress (Phyllis, Last Picture Show)
1926 Corinne Calvet France, actress (Apache Uprising)
1926 Edmund Cooper UK, sci-fi author (Seed of Light, All Fool's Day)
1927 Lars Hall Sweden, Pentathlete (Olympics-gold-1952)
1927 Johnny Horton Los Angeles CA, rocker
1929 Peter Carsten Weissenberg Bavaria, actor (Mr Super Invisible)
1930 Raoul de Keyser [Dekeyser], Flemish painter
1931 William L [Bill] Clay (Representative-Democrat-MO, 1969- )
1932 Anton Larrauri composer
1933 Willie Nelson Abbott TX, country singer (On the Road Again)
1936 Zohra Lampert actress (Doctors' Hospital, Girl With Something Extra)
1938 Gary Collins Venice CA, actor (6th Sense, Home Show)
1938 Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard Queen of Netherlands (1980- )
1938 Larry [Van Cott] Niven US, sci-fi author (5 Hugo, Neutron Star, Flash Crowd)
1939 Ellen Taafe Zwilich Miami FL, (1st woman composer Pulitzer 1982)
1939 Pieter van Vollenhoven husband of Dutch Princess Margriet
1940 Burt Young New York NY, actor (Convoy, Rocky)
1941 Johnny Farina rocker (Santo & Johnny)
1941 Wilfried Jentzsh composer
1943 Bobby Vee Fargo ND, (Devil or Angel, Night has a Thousand Eyes)
1943 Robert L Livingston (Representative-Republican-LA, 1977- )
1944 Jill Clayburgh New York NY, actress (Unmarried Woman, Semi-Tough)
1944 Richard Shoff rocker (Sandpipers)
1945 Annie Dillard American writer (An American Childhood)
1945 Michael J Smith Beaufort NC, Commander USN, astronaut (51L-Challenger disaster)
1945 Claude van de Berge [Rony MF Pauwels], Flemish writer (Graph Theory)
1945 Mike Beacon rocker (Ox)
1945 Mimi Farina rocker (Reflections in a Crystal Wind)
1946 Carl XVI Gustav King of Sweden (1973- )
1946 Donald Schollander Charlotte NC, 100 meter/400 meter freestyle swimmer (Olympics-gold-1964)
1947 Robert Scott (Representative-Democrat-VA)
1948 Perry King Alliance OH, actor (Cody-Riptide, Andy Warhol's "Bad")
1948 Wayne Kramer jazz artist (Dangerous Madness)
1951 Panuta Rosani Poland, discus (Olympics 1976) drug disqualified
1952 Tom Pesek PC programmer (creator of HAL 9000 program)
1953 Merrill Osmond Ogden UT, singer (Osmond Brothers, Donnie & Marie)
1954 Günther Tiersch German Democratic Republic, 8 man cox (Olympics-gold-1968)
1955 Dimitra Papandreau Greece, wife of Greek PM Andreas Papandreau
1956 Richard Farina folk singer (Reflections in a Crystal Wind)
1957 Duane G Carey St Paul MN, Major USAF/astronaut
1959 Kamaran Abdalla Iraq/England/Netherlands actor (Goede Tijden Selechte Tijden)
1959 Lauren Howe LPGA golfer
1961 Isiah Thomas NBA forward (Detroit Pistons, 1990 NBA playoff MVP)
1963 Steve Smith Glasgow Sco, NHL defenseman (Chicago Blackhawks)
1964 Ian Healy cricket wicket-keeper (Australian since 1988)
1964 Jeff Reboulet Dayton OH, infielder (Minnesota Twins)
1965 Adrian Pasdar Pittsfield MA, actor (C Oliver Resor-Feds, Top Gun)
1965 Daniela Costian Australian discus/shot putter (Olympics-96)
1966 Aundray Bruce defensive end (Oakland Raiders)
1966 David Meggett NFL running back (New York Giants, New England Patriots)
1966 Jeff Brown Ottawa, NHL defenseman (Hartford Whalers)
1968 Babette Van Veen Netherlands, actress (Linda-GTST, Blueberry Hill)
1968 Paulo Jr Brazilian pop bassist (Sepultura, Morbid Visions)
1968 Richard Pilon Saskatoon, NHL defenseman (New York Islanders)
1968 Roger Mar Seattle WA, rapid fire pistol (Olympics-1996)
1968 Sandra Beikoff Mackay Queensland, golfer (1990 Sunshine Coast Open)
1969 Joey Restivo Brooklyn, rocker (Linear-I Never Felt This Way, Lies)
1969 Dexter Rogers St Petersburg FL, volleyball opposite hitter (Olympics-96)
1970 Brad Layton Seymour IN, rower (Olympics-1996)
1970 Debbie D Philadelphia PA, actress (Attack of Vampire Mermaid)
1971 B J Tyler NBA guard (Toronto Raptors)
1971 Matt Martin Hamden, NHL defenseman (Toronto Maple Leafs, Olympics-US-94)
1971 Randy Bierman WLAF tackle (Scottish Claymores)
1971 Ryan Hawblitzel West Palm Beach FL, pitcher (Colorado Rockies)
1971 Ty Hallock fullback (Jacksonville Jaguars)
1972 Kendricke Bullard NFL wide receiver (New England Patriots)
1972 Mario Schaden hockey forward (Team Austria 1998)
1974 Cedric Jones defensive end (New York Giants)
1974 Chris Darkins NFL running back (Green Bay Packers-Superbowl 31)
1975 Beverley Peele model [or Apr 7]
1975 Johnny Galecki Bree Belgium, actor (American Dreamer, David-Roseanne)
1982 Kirsten Dunst actress (Interview with the Vampire)
1988 Molloko San Diego Zoo, 1st California condor chick conceived in captivity

Deaths which occurred on April 30:

0313 Gaius G V Maximus [Daia] Emperor of Rome, dies
0535 Amalaswintha queen of Ostrogoten, murdered
1030 Mohammud van Ghazna Turkish mayor (G'widen)/Islamic ruler, dies
1196 Boudouin II bishop of Utrecht (1178-96), dies
1214 Huguccio/Hugo van Pisa Italian bishop, dies
1328 Meister Johann Eckhard German theologist/mystic, dies
1630 Ercole Porta composer, dies at 44
1632 Jean de Tilly fieldmarshal, dies
1632 Sigismund III King of Poland/Sweden, dies at 65
1660 Peter Scriverius Dutch lawyer/historian, dies at 84
1671 Péter Zrinyi Hungarian banished to Croatia, beheaded at 49
1708 Simon de Vries book seller/writer (Unequal), dies
1712 Philippus van Limborch remonstrants theologist/vicar, dies at 78
1743 Pedro de Peralta y Barnuevo Peruvian playwright/poet, dies
1784 Franz K earl von Velbruck German free mason, dies
1785 Frederick Philipse 3 land owner (Bronx, Westch & Putnam), dies at 65
1792 Hans Adolf Friedrich von Eschstruth composer, dies at 36
1792 John Montague 4th Earl of Sandwich English Naval minister, dies at 73
1793 Lorenzo Fago composer, dies at 88
1795 Jean-Jacques Barthélemy French historian (Ancient Greece), dies
1800 John H Midderigh Rotterdam patriot, dies at 46
1828 Shaka the great Zulu king, killed
1829 George Washington Adams son of John Q Adams, dies on City Island New York NY
1847 Charles archduke of Austria/Governor-General (Austria-Netherlands), dies
1848 Friedrich Freiherr Gagern German/Dutch army commandant, dies at 53
1855 Henry Rowley Bishop British composer/conductor, dies at 68
1859 Sergei T Aksakov Russian writer (Bagrova-vnuka), dies at 67
1887 Friedrich Wilhelm Markull composer, dies at 71
1893 Edouard Manet French painter (Olympia), dies at 61
1893 Gyula Beliczay composer, dies at 57
1895 Gustav Freytag writer, dies at 78
1896 Antonio Cagnoni composer, dies at 68
19-- Richard Farina rocker, dies on his birthday in a motorcycle accident
1900 John Luther [Casey] Jones dies in Cannonball Express train wreck
1903 François Crépin Belgian botany, dies at 72
1912 Frantisek Kmoch composer, dies
1919 Henry Wood England cricket wicket keeper (in 4 Tests 1888-92), dies
1922 David M Chumaceiro Curaçaos poet, dies
1929 Friedrich Lienhard German publisher (Türmer), dies at 63
1931 Sammy Woods cricketer (3 Tests for Australia, 3 for England), dies
1933 Luis Sanchez Cerro President of Peru, assassinated by Hurtado de Mendoza
1934 Dr William Henry Welch pathologist who played a major role in the introduction of modern medical practice and education dies at 75
1942 Catherine Murphy Urner composer, dies at 51
1942 J van Hoddis writer, dies at 54
1943 Beatrice Potter Webb British writer (My Apprenticeship), dies at 85
1943 Etty Hillesum Dutch diarist, dies in Auschwitz
1945 Adolf Hitler German dictator (1936-45), commits suicide at 56
1945 Eva Braun mistress/wife of Hitler, commits suicide at 33
1952 Charles Radoux-Rogier composer, dies
1956 Alben W Barkley (Vice President-Democrat-1949-53), dies at 78
1957 Ludwig Schiedermair German musicologist (Beethoven), dies at 80
1959 Armand Louis Joseph Marsick composer, dies at 81
1963 Bryant Washburn actor (Nabonga, Millionaire Kid), dies at 74
1965 Helen Chandler actress (Dracula, Salute, Last Flight), dies at 56
1966 Richard Farina rocker, dies on his birthday in a motorcycle accident
1968 Frankie Lymon rocker, dies of a heroin overdose
1970 Inger Stevens actress (Katy-Farmer's Daughter), commits suicide at 35
1970 Hall Johnson composer, dies at 82
1970 Jacob Presser historian/writer (Doom, Ondergang), dies at 71
1971 Elmo Roper pollster (Roper Poll), dies at 70
1972 Gia Scala actress (Garment Jungle, I Aim at the Stars), dies at 38
1972 Ntare V king of Burundi, murdered
1973 Josie Sedgwick actress (White Moth), dies of stroke at 75
1974 Agnes Moorehead actress (Endora-Bewitched), dies from cancer at 67
1976 Edvard Fliflet Braein composer, dies at 51
1977 Clive Martin Douglas composer, dies at 73
1980 Mary McCarty actress (French Line), dies
1982 Albert Bird lecture artist, dies
1982 Herman Tholen Dutch cabaret performer (Juveniles), dies
1982 Taisen Deshimaru founder of several Zen centers in France, dies at 67
1983 George Balanchine choreographer, dies at 78
1983 Jerry Hatsuo Fujikawa actor (Uncle Matsu-Mr T & Tina), dies at 71
1983 Muddy Waters US blues singer/guitarist (Mad Love), dies at 68
1984 Arthur T "Bomber" Harris bombed Nazi-Germany, dies
1984 Muddy Waters blues singer/guitarist (Hoochie Coochie Man), dies at 68
1985 George Pravada actor (Felscher-Holocaust), dies at 66
1987 Hugh Dempster actor (Anna Karenina, Candles at Nine), dies
1988 James McCracken US tenor, dies at 61
1989 Sergio Leone Italian director (Good, Bad & Ugly), dies at 60
1991 George Sperti Sperti inventor (Preparation H), dies at 91
1991 Michael G Hagerty actor (Overboard), dies at 39
1992 Daan van Driel Dutch cartoonist/WWII resist fighter (Trouw), dies
1993 David Waymer NFLer (Saints, 49'ers, Raiders), dies at 34
1993 Eric Rowan cricketer (26 Tests for South Africa), dies
1994 David Langton dies of a heart at 81
1994 Ferdinando Scarfiotti Italian set designer (Last Emperor), dies at 53
1994 Geoffery Michael Roberts vintner, dies at 46
1994 Richard McClure Scarry US kid book illustrator/writer, dies at 74
1994 Roland Ratzenberger Austrian race car driver, dies in crash at 31
1995 Donald Edwin White ad copywriter/opera administrator, dies at 59
1995 Reinaldo de Carvalho carnival king, dies at 34
1996 David Michael Ifshin British political campaign organiser, dies at 46
1996 David Opatoshu actor (Torn Curtian, Raid on Entebbe), dies at 78
1996 Frank Henry Copplestone TV executive, dies at 71
1996 Helene Cordet entertainer/nightclub owner, dies at 78
1996 Julio Cesar Mendez Montenegro President of Guatemala (1966-70), dies

On this day...

0311 Emperor Galerius recognizes Christians legally in the Roman Empire
1006 Brightest supernova in recorded history is observed
1064 German King Henry IV gives away Utrecht county of West Friesland
1349 Jewish community at Radolszell Germany, exterminated
1396 Crusaders & earl of Nevers depart from Dijon
1492 Columbus is given royal commission to equip his fleet
1506 Philip of Bourgondy & England sign trade agreement
1527 England & France sign treaty of Westminster
1562 1st French colonists in US Jean Ribaut & Hugenots at Parris Island NC
1563 Jews are expelled from France by order of Charles VI
1598 1st theater performance in America (Spanish comedy-Rio Grande)
1616 English King Jacob I leaves Brielle/Vlissingen
1650 French rebel Henri de la Tour Turenne signs treaty with Spain
1661 Tsjeng Tsj'eng-Kung begins siege of Dutch fort Zeelandia, Formosa
1695 William Congreve's "Love for Love", premieres in London
1722 The game of Billiards is mentioned in the New England Courant
1725 Emperor Charles VI & King Philip IV of Spain sign Treaty of Vienna
1748 Ceasefire at Aken ends
1748 French troops occupy Maastricht
1763 London Journalist John Wilkes confined in the Tower
1772 John Clais patents 1st scale
1774 Pope Clement XIV proclaims a universal jubilee
1789 George Washington inaugurated as 1st President of US
1790 Colonial troops occupy Bonni's marroon village
1798 Department of the Navy is established
1803 US doubles in size through the Louisiana Purchase ($15 million)
1804 Hague's Theater opens
1808 1st practical typewriter finished by Italian Pellegrini Turri
1812 (Eastern) Louisiana admitted as 18th US state
1838 Nicaragua declares independence from Central American federation
1852 Anton Rubinsteins opera "Dmitri Donskoi", premieres in St Petersburg
1857 San Jose State University forms
1859 Paul Morphy returns from 10-month chess tour of Europe, retires
1860 Navaho Indians attack Fort Defiance (Canby)
1861 President Abraham Lincoln ordered Federal Troops to evacuate Indian Territory
1862 Swift Run Gap WV skirmishes
1864 New York becomes 1st state to charge a hunting license fee
1864 Battle of Jenkins' Ferry AR; General William Read Scurry is killed
1865 General Shermans "Haines's Bluff" at Snyder's Mill VA
1869 Hawaiian YMCA organized
1871 Apaches in Arizona surrender to white & Mexican adventurers; 144 die
1885 Boston Pops Orchestra forms
1887 1st game played at Broad & Huntingdon St Park (Baker Bowl) in Philadelphia; Phillies beat Giants 19-10
1888 Hailstones kill about 250 in Moradabad district of Delhi India
1889 1st US national holiday, on centennial of Washington's inauguration
1898 Championship wrestling match at the Metropolitan turns into a brawl
1900 165 lb Robert Fitzsimmons KOs 305 lb Ed Dunkhost in a boxing match
1900 USA annexes Hawaii
1902 Debussy's opera "Pelléas et Mélissande", premieres in Paris France
1903 New York Highlanders (Yankees) 1st home game, (Hilltop Park-168th St & Broadway, Manhattan), they beat Washington Senators, 6-2
1904 Ice cream cone makes its debut
1905 1st official soccer game between Belgium-Netherlands (1-4)
1910 Cleveland Indian Addie Joss wins 2nd no-hitter beating White Sox
1911 Portugal approves woman suffrage
1918 Orange Nassau soccer team forms in Groningen
1919 Philadelphia Phillies beat Brooklyn Dodgers 9-0 in 20 innings
1921 American Professional Football Association reorganizes in Akron
1921 Pope Benedict XV encyclical "On Dante"
1922 Chicago White Sox Charles Robertson perfect games Detroit Tigers, 2-0
1927 Princess Juliana gets seat in Dutch Council of State
1928 Cherkess Autonomous Region is established in RSFSR (until 1957)
1929 Earnest Streeruwitz becomes chancellor of Austria
1934 Austria gets "Austrian facist" constitution
1935 World Congress for Women's Rights concludes in Istanbul
1937 General Douglas MacArthur marries Jean Faircloth
1938 Bradman scores 258 Australia vs Worcestershire, 293 minutes, 33 fours 1 five
1939 NBC/RCA 1st public TV demo with FDR at opening of New York World's Fair
1939 Tropicana ballet of Havana Cuba, forms
1940 Brooklyn Dodger Tex Carleton no-hits Cincinnati Reds, 3-0
1941 Spread of Judaism begins in Croatia
1942 1st submarine built on Great Lakes launched, (Peto), Manitowoc WI
1943 Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp for Jews forms
1943 Dutch strike against forced labor in Nazi Germany's war industry
1943 Noël Coward's "This Happy Breed", premieres in London
1944 New York Giant, Mel Ott scores 6 runs in 1 game drawing 5 walks for 4th time
1944 New York Giant Phil Weintraub gets 11 RBIs
1945 "Arthur Godfrey Time" begins a 27 year run on CBS radio
1945 Concentration camp München-Allag freed
1945 Lord Haw-Haw calls for crusade against the bolsheviks
1945 Red Army occupies Demmin
1945 Red Army opens attack on German Reichstag building in Berlin
1945 Russian Army frees Ravensbrück concentration camp
1945 US troops attack the Elbe
1946 Cleveland Indian Bob Feller's 2nd no-hitter beats New York Yankees, 1-0
1947 Boulder Dam renamed in honor of Herbert Hoover
1948 Organization of American States charter signed at Bogotá, Colombia
1948 "Inside USA" opens at Century Theater NYC for 339 performances
1948 US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Enwetak
1950 Babe Didrikson-Zaharias wins LPGA 144-hole Golf Weathervane
1952 Louise Suggs wins LPGA Stockton Golf Open
1952 Mr Potato Head is 1st toy advertised on television
1953 Little-Bigger League changes its name to Babe Ruth League
1954 Darius Milhauds 4th Concert for piano/orchestra premieres in Haifa
1955 Element 101, Mendelevium, announced
1955 Perez Prado's "Cherry Pink & Apple Blossom White" goes #1 for 10 weeks
1955 Imperial Bank of India nationalized
1955 West German unions protest for 40-hour work week & more wages
1958 Ted Williams is 10th major league player to get 1,000 extra-base hits
1961 1st shuttle flights between Washington DC, Boston MA & New York NY begin (Eastern)
1961 Lee Harvey Oswald marries Marina Prusakova in Minsk USSR
1961 Mickey Wright wins LPGA Titleholders Golf Championship
1961 Premier Fidel Castro of Cuba receives Lenin-Peace Prize
1961 San Francisco Giant Willie Mays hits 4 homeruns in a game
1962 NASA civilian pilot Joseph A Walker takes X-15 to an altitude of 75,190 meters
1967 Baltimore Orioles' Stu Miller & Steve Barber lose 2-1 despite no-hitting Detroit Tigers
1967 Highest tower in the world finished, 537 meters (USSR)
1967 Mickey Wright wins LPGA Shreveport Kiwanis Club Golf Invitational
1967 New York Mets pitcher Tom Seaver wins his 1st game
1968 3 Baltimore Oriole pitchers walk 14 New York Yankees in a 9 inning game
1969 Cincinnati Red Jim Maloney 3rd no-hitter beats Houston Astros, 10-0
1969 WEDB TV channel 40 in Berlin NH (PBS) begins broadcasting
1970 US troops invade Cambodia
1970 Chicago Cubs Billy Williams is 1st National Leaguer to play in 1,000 consecutive games
1971 25th NBA Championship Milwaukee Bucks beat Baltimore Bullets in 4 games
1972 "Arthur Godfrey Time" ends a 27 year run on radio
1972 Kathy Whitworth wins LPGA Alamo Ladies Golf Open
1973 Nixon announces resignation of Haldeman, Ehrlichman, et al
1973 Paul McCartney releases "Red Rose Speedway" including "My Love"
1973 Women's tennis groups end disputes over sanctioning tournaments
1974 President Richard Nixon hands over partial transcripts of Watergate tape recordings
1975 Last US helicopter leaves US embassy groundsin Vietnam, Saigon surrenders
1976 Wings release "Silly Love Songs"
1976 Muhammad Ali beats Jimmy Young in 15 for heavyweight boxing title
1976 Royal Canadian Mint opens a branch in Winnipeg Manitoba
1977 "Party with Comden & Green" closes at Morosco NYC after 92 performances
1977 Billy Graham beats Bruno Sammartino in Baltimore MD, to become WWF champion
1977 Ron Cey sets record of 29 RBIs in April
1978 "Elvis The Legend Lives!" closes at Palace NYC after 101 performances
1978 Janet Coles wins LPGA Natural Light Lady Tara Golf Classic
1979 Mary Therese Friel, (New York), crowned 28th Miss USA
1980 Queen Beatrix of Netherlands, Wilhelmina Armgard, ascends to the throne
1980 Terrorists seize Iranian Embassy in London
1980 "Barnum" opens at St James Theater NYC for 854 performances
1980 Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, abdicates
1980 Ronald Harwood's "Dresser", premieres in London
1981 "Can-Can" opens at Minskoff Theater NYC for 5 performances
1981 16th Academy of Country Music Awards Barbara Mandrell & George Jones win
1982 Alvaro Magana chosen to succeed Jose N Duarte as President of El Salvador
1982 Atlanta Braves win record 12th straight from beginning of season
1982 Iranian offensive in Khusistan
1983 Bruins 3-Islanders 7-Wales Conference Championship-Islanders hold 2-1 lead
1984 Strong winds cause a 30 minute delay in Toronto Blue Jays game
1984 1700 skiers participate in an alpine event at Are Sweden
1985 Dale Murphy drives in record tying 28th & 29th runs of April
1985 France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island
1985 Last edition of Brink Daily Mail/Sunday Express in South Africa
1986 Ashrita Furman peformed 8,341 somersaults over 12 miles
1986 Seattle Mariners strike out 16 times, set record of 36 in 2 consecutive games
1987 New York Islander Mike Bossy plays his final game
1987 Lou Lamoriello is named New Jersey Devils president
1988 New Jersey Devils beat Capitals 3-2 taking 7th game of Patrick Division final
1988 New York Knights 1st arena football game; beat Cobras 60-52 (10,157 in Los Angeles)
1988 New York Yankee Dave Winfield gets his 29th RBI of April-Sets American League & ties major league record
1988 World Exposition, Expo 88 opens in Brisbane Australia
1988 Baltimore Orioles win record 14th straight from beginning of season
1988 Largest banana split ever, at 4.55 miles long, is made in Selinsgrove PA
1989 Critics Siskel & Ebert film their 500th TV movie-review show
1989 US beats Costa Rica 1-0, in 3rd round of 1990 world soccer cup
1989 Kathy Postlewait wins LPGA Sara Lee Golf Classic
1989 Pope John Paul II beatifies Victoire Rasoamanarivo of Madagascar
1990 As New York Mets pitcher David Cone argues a call at 1st base, 2 Atlanta Braves score
1990 US 66th manned space mission STS 31 (Discovery 10) returns from space
1990 Seattle Mariner's Brian Holman's perfect game broken up with 2 outs in 9th
1990 US hostage Frank Reed freed after 4 years in hands of pro-Iranians
1991 In Bangladesh a cyclone kills over 131,000 & leaves 9 million homeless
1992 208th & final episode of "The Cosby Show" on NBC-TV
1994 Soccer great Pele (53) weds psychologist Assiria Seixas Lemos (36)
1995 "Blood Brothers" closes at Music Box Theater NYC after 839 performances
1995 "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes" closes at Lyceum Theater NYC after 24 performances
1995 "Rose Tattoo" opens at Circle in the Square Theater NYC for 80 performances
1995 After 120 years the last 15 A & S department stores close
1995 Val Skinner wins LPGA Sprint Golf Championship
1996 "Buried Child", opens at Atkinson Theater NYC for 77 performances
1996 Dutch/Italian Beppo-SAX launches from Cape Canaveral
1996 Howard Stern Radio Show premieres in Grand Rapids MI on WKLQ 94.5 FM
1997 "London Assurance", opens at Criterion Theater NYC for 72 performances
1997 42 million watch "Ellen" admit she is gay
1997 Atlanta Braves win record 19 games in April
1997 Big Ben stops at 12:11 PM for 54 minutes
1997 President Bill Clinton's daughter Chelsea chooses to attend Stanford College
1997 Tajik President Imomali Rakhmonov wounded in assassination attempt
1997 Tino Martinez hits record 34 RBIs in April


Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Louisiana : Admission Day (1813)
Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Surinam : Queen Juliana's Birthday
Switzerland : May Day Eve/Maitag Vorabend
Alabama, Florida, Mississippi : Confederate Memorial Day (1868) - - - - - ( Monday )
US-Utah : Arbor Day-Plant a tree (1872) - - - - - ( Friday )


Religious Observances
Roman Catholic : St Pius V, pope
Wicca : Walpurgis Night or Bealtaine, sabbat
Roman Catholic, Lutheran : Commemoration of St Catherine of Siena, virgin/doctor
Roman Catholic : Memorial of St Pius V, pope (1566-72) (optional)
Jewish : Yom Hashoah (Holocaust Memorial Day) (Nisan 27, 5752 AM)


Religious History
418 Roman Emperor Honorius (who ruled 395-423) issued a decree denouncing Pelagianism, which taught that humanity can take the initial and fundamental steps toward salvation by its own efforts, apart from divine grace.
1841 Birth of Orville J. Nave, the U.S. Armed Services chaplain who compiled the "Nave's Topical Bible" -- still in print!
1867 Death of Ithamar Conkey, 52, a popular 19th century English bass vocalist. He also composed the hymn-tune RATHBUN to which we sing today, "In the Cross of Christ I Glory."
1904 Birth of John T. Benson, Jr, religious composer and former president of Heartwarming Music in Nashville. His best-known sacred composition was the hymn, "Love Lifted Me."
1944 English scholar J.R.R. Tolkien wrote in a letter: 'Evil labors with vast powers and perpetual success -- in vain: preparing always only the soil for unexpected good to sprout in. So it is in general, and so it is in our own lives.'

Source: William D. Blake. ALMANAC OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1987.
Additional information supplied by the author. Contact via E-mail: William D. Blake. (

Thought for the day :
" To get ahead and stay ahead, use your head. "

Friday, April 24, 2009

Sunday, April 19, 2009

Inside technology of Hovercraft

The hovercraft was invented by Christopher Cockerell, an English electronic engineer in the 1950s. The first full-sized hovercraft, the SRN1 was not built and ready for testing until May 28, 1959.
Because of friction between the boat and the water, boats could not be made to travel faster without using powerful jet engines which use a lot of fuel, so Christopher Cockerel thought of something to reduce the friction. To reduce any kind of friction, you need a lubricant. Cockerel thought air might be the answer. After attempting many experiments he came up with an solution. A curtain of air right around the hull of the boat in the form of an annular, or ring-shaped, jet was the answer to friction.

The hovercraft has improved in strength over the years and many other developments have also taken place. They include:

The Hoverbed: which is a light fabric bed supported on a rigid frame, which is used in the treatment of severe burn cases: it allows the injuries to dry up rapidly and heal much more quickly.

The hover-transporter: it is a heavy-load transporter working on the hovercraft is used for moving bulky loads

The hoverkiln: this device was used for a time in the manufacture of delicate china, which ‘floated’ through the kiln on a cushion of air.

The hovermower: Lawnmowers which ride over the grass on a cushion of air are proving of great value on banks and eneven ground as well as stretches of level turf.

Life would be quite different without the invention of the hovercraft. By using the hovercraft, people could travel to places quicker by sea and also the ability to transport heavy loads by sea quicker is also a great advantage to us. Many hovercrafts travel across the English Channel and they have reduced the journey time to 35 minutes, from 90 minutes on a ferry. Many people still believe that the hovercraft is a perfect military tool as it is the only true amphibious vehicle that can travel at the same speed over land and ocean.


A hovercraft is a vehicle supported on a cushion of air supplied by a powered fan mounted on the craft.
The hovercraft was invented by Christopher Cockerell in 1956. The theory behind one of the most successful inventions of the 20th century, the Hovercraft, was originally tested in 1955 using an empty KiteKat cat food tin inside a coffee tin, an industrial air blower and a pair of kitchen scales. Sir Christopher Cockerell developed the first practical hovercraft designs, these led to the first hovercraft to be produced commercially, the SRN1.
Christopher Cockerell's idea was to build a vehicle that would move over the water's surface, floating on a layer of air. This would reduce friction between the water and vehicle. To test his hypothesis, he put one a smaller can inside a larger can and used a hairdryer to blow air into them. The downward thrust produced was greater when one can was inside the other rather than air just being blown into one can.
Christopher Cockerell - Biography (information provided by NASA)
Christopher Sydney Cockerell was born in 1910. He worked for the Radio Research Company until 1935 and then for the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company from 1935 until 1951. During the war years, Christopher Cockerell worked with an elite team at Marconi to develop radar, a development which Churchill believed had a significant effect on the outcome of the Second World War, and Cockerell believed to be one of his greatest achievements. While at Marconi, Christopher Cockerell patented 36 of his ideas. Christopher Cockerell was knighted for his achievement in 1969.

Hovercraft History & Hovercraft Museum
By Chris Potter - An on-line encyclopedia describing the history of Hovercraft from their early beginnings to today's successful commercial operations.
Christopher Cockerell, Hovercraft Inventor
Christopher Cockerell, Biography
Sir Christopher Cockerell, Creator of the Hovercraft, Dies at 88

Universal HovercraftBuild your own hovercraft, order hovercraft hulls and parts, hovercraft faq, how they work and drive.
Build Your Own Model HovercraftProject materials cost about twenty dollars U.S.
Online Model Hovercraft PlansPlans for building a model hovercraft, faqs, rudders, engines, hulls, and more.
How to Make a Flying Saucer Spacecraft (hovercraft) How Hoverboards Will Work - Hovercrafts

Related Innovations

Monday, April 13, 2009

Gulf of Mexico

Welcome to the premier online guide to the Gulf of Mexico and Gulf of Mexico maps. The Gulf of Mexico is a major body of water bordered and nearly landlocked by North America. The gulf's eastern, northern, and northwestern shores lie within the United States of America. The gulf is bordered on the southwestern and southern shores with Mexico.

The Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary contains the northernmost tropical coral reefs in the U.S. (4)
The Gulf of Mexico links the ports of five southern U.S states (Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) and six Mexican states (Tamaulipas, Vera Cruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatán, and Quintana Roo) with the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. (7)

Like the Mediterranean Sea, the Gulf is a semi-enclosed, partially land-locked, intercontinental, marginal sea. (3)
The United States and Mexico form the Gulf's mainland shore, which extends more than 4,000 miles from the Florida Keys to Cabo Catoche, at the northwestern tip of the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico.(7)
At a depth of more than 12,000 feet, Sigsbee Deep is the deepest part of the gulf. It is more than 300 miles long and is sometimes called the “Grand Canyon under the sea.” Its closest point to the Texas coast is 200 miles southeast of Brownsville. (7)
The total area of the Gulf is about 600,000 square miles. (3)
The greatest distance across the Gulf is approximately 1,000 miles going east to west. (3)
The shortest distance across the Gulf is about 500 miles between the Mississippi Delta and the tip of the Yucatan Peninsula. (3)
The Gulf's geologic origin remains uncertain. Proposed theories speculate that it is: a foundered and ocean-flooded continental crust; an ocean basin that has been subjected to rifting; or an ancient sea that has existed since the various continents formed a single land mass. (7)
The Gulf of Mexico provides various marine resources which include navigation, recreation, oil and gas, commercial fisheries, oysters, and shell. (7)
Aransas National Wildlife Refuge in Texas is the wintering ground of most of the world's whooping cranes in the wild. (7)

Padre Island National Seashore in Texas is the nation's longest stretch of undeveloped beach. (7)
Gulf coast ports are served by the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, which extends 1,200 miles from Brownsville to Carrabelle, Florida. Approximately eighty million tons of cargo is transported along the coast each year via the Waterway. (7)
Louisiana contains 41% of the nation’s coastal wetlands. (3)
Sebastián de Ocampo, a Spaniard who circumnavigated Cuba in 1508-1509, was credited with the first European discovery of the Gulf. (7)
The Gulf was unnamed until the early 1540s and was considered part of the Atlantic Ocean. The Spanish name most often applied to it was Seno Mexicano (seno="gulf" or "bay"), although it was occasionally referred to as Golfo de Nueva España, or Golfo de México. (7)
For more than 150 years after its discovery, the Gulf of Mexico was a forbidden area to nations other than Spain. (7)
In 1881, Hamilton Diston purchased 4 million acres of land in Florida for 25 cents per acre. His goal was "to drain this worthless swamp you people call Everglades." This resulted in a connection between the Caloosahatchee River and Lake Okeechobee and on to the Gulf. (3, 2)
In 1845 the United States Coast Survey began work in the Gulf of Mexico to create accurate navigational charts. (3)
The U.S. Fish Commission began scientific exploration of the deep waters of the Gulf in the 1880s. (3)
Environmental Concerns
Various studies and government reports note that 225 Texas acres of topsoil wash into the Gulf each year. Louisiana is similarly plagued, losing more than fifty square miles of topsoil a year to erosion. (7)
The United States Army Corps of Engineers estimates that 60 percent of the Texas shore is eroding, 33 percent stable and seven percent advancing. (7)
More than 500 tons of trash washes ashore each year along the Texas coast alone. (7)
Gulf coast states (Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas) make up four of the top five states responsible for the greatest surface water discharge of toxic chemicals. (6)
Ninety three percent of the catch in the north central Gulf is wasted bycatch. (6)
As of 1992, nearly 90% of Florida’s approximately 460,000 acres of mangroves occur in the four southernmost counties, and more than 20,000 acres have already been destroyed. (3)
Each year 40 to 60 square miles of Louisiana’s wetlands disappear due to natural and human induced impacts. (3)
Estimates by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers say that by 2040 an area larger than Rhode Island will have disappeared from Louisiana’s coastal margin. (3)
Artificial Reefs

Florida, which leads the Nation in total number of artificial reefs with more than 300, has reefs built of everything from ships and airplanes to bridge rubble and buses. (1)
By 1994, around 60 petroleum structures have been converted to permanent reefs in the Gulf of Mexico. An estimated five platforms in Florida, 19 platforms in Texas, three platforms in Alabama and 36 platforms in Louisiana have been donated on behalf of fishery enhancement. (1)
Keeping Texas beaches clean and safe is an economic as well as environmental priority. Coastal tourism, a $7 billion industry, and commercial fishing, a $1.9 billion business, demand clean beaches and a healthy gulf to thrive. (5)

1. Congdon, B, and V. Reggio. 1994. Artificial Reefs: Oases for Marine Life in the Gulf [Accessed Aug 20, 2003]. 2. Fort Meyers On-line. 1994. The History of Fort Meyers [Accessed Aug 21, 2003]. 3. Gore, R.H. 1992. The Gulf of Mexico. Pineapple Press, Sarasota, Florida. 4. Rezak, R., T.J. Bright, and D.W. McGrail. 1985. Reefs and banks of the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico; their geological, biological, and physical dynamics. John Wiley and Sons, NY.5. Texas General Land Office website. 2003. Trashing Texas Beaches Isn’t Cool [Accessed Aug 21, 2003]. 6. Webber, M., R.T. Townsend, R. Bierce. 1992. Environmental Quality in the Gulf of Mexico: A citizens guide. 2nd ed. Center for Marine Conservation, Washington DC.7. Weddle, R.S. "Gulf of Mexico." The Handbook of Texas Online [Accessed Aug 20, 2003].

Wednesday, April 1, 2009